Ladder utilization refers to the continuation of the use of a product that has already been used that has reached the native design life and has been restored in whole or in part by other means, and the process is a basic sibling or degraded application. "Ladder utilization" and "gradient utilization, ladder utilization, downgrade use" are conceptually consistent, but cannot be considered refurbished.
In the process of human social development, many tools, equipment and products are often considered garbage discarded and discarded after being used. In fact, all waste does not mean that its function is completely lost or no longer available. With the continuous development and change of human history, people's way of life production has also undergone great changes, the difference of social division of labor, the difference of national conditions and tribes, the individual's own foundation and growth imbalance, the formation of class attitude makes the formation of irreversible differences between people. From ancient times to modern society, this cycle of life and reproduction has never stopped, and it is against this social background that all matter has been reincarnated and regenerated. In other words, in the common evolution of mankind, has been accompanied by the habit of recycling old and new replacement, which is called the social theory of gradient utilization background.
To the modern civilized society, with the rapid development of machinery, electronics and information society, with the resulting waste materials and commodities are more and more, many people are regarded as garbage products, in other regions or demanders seem to be a good use of things, so recycling is also the global promotion of low-carbon, environmental protection and development of the common voice, and ladder utilization is a theoretical branch of this concept of large recycling. It is regarded as the front-end product of recycling and high-quality production method.
(1) Military field: the use and maintenance costs of military equipment (such as aircraft, tanks, armoured vehicles, heavy artillery, etc.) are enormous, most of which are destroyed for military equipment that has been phased out, but there are also some countries in order to boost the national economy, the core components of these military equipment removed, and then properly packaged for the exhibition of civil history, which has also become the beginning of the gradient utilization in modern times;
(2) Lighting field: also from the military equipment lighting equipment, the original design of the use of military battlefields can no longer be used, many lighting fixtures were removed for civilian lighting;
(3) Battery field: automotive lead batteries are used in many household energy storage (new energy vehicle power batteries are mostly nickel series and lithium series, the gradient utilization of these power batteries is known as the focus of development objects);
(4) Automotive field: Many cities after the elimination of cars often do not enter the dismantling and utilization link, but was transferred to the mainland and remote areas for the downgrade of transport use, which is also a typical example of gradient utilization, but due to security risks, there is also a huge controversy;
(5) Machine tool parts and other fields: many used machine parts are used to make Iron Man and other works of art, for visiting exhibitions, its creation of gradient utilization value is still considerable;
(6) Other applications.
The difference with refurbishment
At the heart of ladder utilization is the need for complex testing and analysis of native products, scientific determination of their life cycle value and reusability, in order to design gradient grades and application areas that are consistent with the product.
Refurbishment use is often a very simple way or convenient situation to repair disguised native products, so that new products are sold to the end market, and in the renovation process there is no scientific testing and evaluation, not to mention gradient design and application of the analysis, so that the re-use of the product will bring all aspects of potential risks.
Therefore, gradient utilization and refurbishment use exist in essence there is a huge difference. The state's original intention in the use of gradients was also to promote the technology in the spirit of scientific rationality and best use, rather than to encourage counterfeiting.
The greatest social significance of ladder utilization is to maximize the use of products, its design cycle has been extended, creating economic value for society, but also for society to reduce waste emissions. It is a kind of circular and low-carbon production way of life which should be vigorously promoted in modern society.
Typical technology applications
Ladder utilization, although it has a distant development background, is a new thing. Because to achieve gradient utilization must rely on the development and progress of science and technology to complete. At home and abroad gradient utilization of applied technology development is the most successful case is the car power battery.
Compared with traditional mobile phone and laptop batteries, automotive power batteries have a large energy, in the native design life cycle, there is no unified standard in the world, and because the application of electric vehicle market has not yet reached the popular level, so the process of production and application of many end-of-life and unqualified power batteries, these batteries in the process of car use is often unqualified or can not meet energy requirements. But these high-capacity power batteries often have modules or monomers that can be used in many fields, such as electricians, electrical lighting, etc.
In terms of gradient utilization technology, research institutes and enterprises such as the National Academy of Sciences are conducting research, including phase-out product life cycle diagnosis, recyclable gradient design, physical index detection, comprehensive performance testing, etc. There is a provincial electric vehicle power battery directional cycle research engineering center and academician workstation set up in Guangdong Province.